Tighter controls on the land border between Greece and Turkey, and above all the effects of the crisis in Greece lead the exiles to take other pathways in the European Union, when they do not choose to stay in Turkey whose economy is dynamic and where informal employment is highly developed.
To avoid Greece the choice from Turkey is between an expensive crossing to Italy and moving to Bulgaria. Although this country has very poor conditions for asylum seekers (long and uncertain treatment of asylum applications, low acceptance rate, locking up a portion of asylum seekers in detention centers while others are left in the street, almost no integration programs for refugees), their numbers are growing strongly (1880 for the first half of 2013 against 1380 for the entire year 2012). Bulgaria plans to open a new reception center from 500 to 700 places, which will be added to those which have already an insufficient capacity in 2012. Reception conditions will therefore deteriorate, pushing asylum seekers to continue their journey to other European countries, where they will be returned to Bulgaria under the Dublin II Regulation, which feeds the wandering through Europe of people in search of protection they do not find.