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9 avril 2012 1 09 /04 /avril /2012 11:04

Turkey is a signatory to the Geneva Convention, but with a geographical distribution limitation to members of the Council of Europe, that is to say that only people from these countries can apply for asylum. So there are about 70 refugees in Turkey, mainly in Central Asia and Caucasus.


For other countries - the vast majority of asylum seekers - it is the High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations which processes the applications. Asylum seekers and refugees who are recognized by UNHCR are merely tolerated on Turkish territory for the duration of the procedure of application instruction, and resettlement in another country if they are recognized refugees. Meanwhile, lasting several years, they are under house arrest in "satellite cities", they can not leave without permission, and where they should point to the police station once or twice a week. Resettlement in another country (European Union, Canada, USA, Australia) depends on the policy of each of them, which set annual quotas, and priorities by nationality. It may take one to two years, to the Iranians for example, or be virtually impossible for citizens of some African countries.


The establishment of an asylum system suprimant the geographical distribution limitation - whether Turkey rather than UNHCR which deals with all applications for asylum - is part of rapprochement talks between Turkey and the European Union. She is also the subject of bargaining - adoption of a law on asylum against liberalization of visa regime for Turkish nationals to the EU. A law is being prepared as well since 2005.


Rapprochement with the European Union is also reflected in the construction of six EU-funded detention and deportation centers, such as Edirne. They are in addition to retention centers nicely called "guest house" that exist in most major cities.


More generally, immigration policy has two main parts. The word "migrant" in Turkish is used to denote people of origin, language or Turkish culture from other countries, who may have access to long-term residence and nationality. They are represented by different associations, but they are claiming rights on behalf of their "Turkishness", so as opposed to other categories of immigrants.


These are considered "foreign". Turkey has a land access regime sufficiently liberal to many countries. The entrance is without a visa for a maximum of 90 days, after which the person must leave the country for at least 90 days before returning. This is obviously incompatible with a permanent job. From this basis, there are two lists of countries, list A, for which obtaining a residence permit is possible long-term conditional, and List B for which it is impossible. Special measures are being taken regarding access to the long stay of a particular category, especially workers and domestic workers.

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